На пирамиде качества жизни, составленной по аналогии с пирамидой потребностей А.Маслоу, главным показателем четвертого предзавершающего уровня является качество культуры народа. А его двумя основными слагаемыми являются сформированные качество образования и качество здравоохранения: параметры духовного долголетия народа и государства.

Также как и вы, мои партнеры, оставаясь принципиально деятельностным практиком, я глубоко уверен в правоте слов Кирхгоффа, что «НЕТ НИЧЕГО ПРАКТИЧНЕЕ ХОРОШЕЙ ТЕОРИИ». Но хорошая теория появляется и побеждает только тогда, когда любознательный и внимательный практик увидит незаметные легкие проблески и услышит пока еще неслышимое другими в привычном, казалось бы, ходе вещей, и первым познает качественные изменения нового времени.

Поэтому постарайтесь увидеть в статьях коллег педагогов признаки нового времени, параметры произошедших или происходящих изменений, чтобы, поняв и признав их, начать развиваться самим и помочь совершенствоваться коллегам.

Качественное образование во все времена и у всех народов являлось основным признаком самоуважения и уважения к другому человеку.

Methodological manual essay "Employers' requirements and state education standards"

Статьи ученых-педагогов


Chapter 2. What does the education professional standard have for us?

Let's consider the education professional standard from a different point of view. Nowadays the principle of continuing education is actively promoted through all the life or as it is said in one proverb: “Live and learn!”. Technologies change quickly; every day new equipment, technics, which can be used only by means of necessary knowledge, competences and practical skills, learned in HEIs, appear. The state itself has taken the first step in optimization of the education process for a student, getting a second Higher Education. All subjects of the humanities, socio-economic, mathematical disciplines and natural sciences, learned by a student, getting the first HE, are permitted to be re-passed.

What does it mean? It means that the RF Ministry of Education and Science, as a developer of standards, admits that these disciplines practically have nothing to do with learning of a concrete specialty of professional education. Most likely they have a nature of “general development”. Which subjects are being talked about? These are such subjects of the humanities and socio-economic disciplines as Foreign Language, Physical Training, History of the Fatherland, Philosophy, Culturology, Sociology, Political Science, Pedagogics, Psychology, Russian Language, Standard of Speech, Economics and Science of Law. Among subjects of mathematical and natural sciences there are Higher Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology (for humanists – Conception of Modern Natural Science), Informatics.

The time for learning of these disciplines makes up 50 % of all learning load of a student in a HEI or in a SSS. During the first two years and a half of the third students learn practically only these subjects, and just the discipline “Introduction to Speciality” lets distinguish freshmen of different faculties from each other. And the point is not only in the volume or content of learning of these disciplines, which can be connected with a received speciality only symbolically; but also in a principled approach towards the study of them. It seems as if a student, having chosen a future profession consciously, were testified in faithfulness to his dream, and consequently were not allowed to study the main subjects (majors) during the first years.

But at the same time a student, having poor results in the disciplines of “the general development”, which are hardly connected with his future profession, is punished the most strictly. As statistics show, about 80 % of all sending down of students are determined by poor results in these subjects, and only 20 % - by poor progress in professional and special subjects (the Pareto principle works here). It is obvious that the motivation of a student to study subjects, concerning his future profession, is much stronger than to study disciplines of “the general development”, imposed on them by some unfamiliar developers of the higher professional education standards.

Now let's talk about this “general development”. When some students uncertainly asks: “For what do we (future motorists, electricians, mechanicians, chemical technologists and etc.) need this Philosophy (Sociology, Culturology, Political Science)?”, an experienced lecturer always answers: “For your general development”. And then there is silence, as nobody can doubt it. Foolish students are cared by wise state people, who want a student to be not only a narrow specialist, but also a highly qualified professional with a broad mind and general harmonious development.

But a fewer of us realize that the words “for the general development” are just general words and have nothing to do with development, and that objective laws, which mustn't be violated, exist not only in Physics, but also in Biology, Pedagogics and Psychology. And one of psychological principles with the conventional name “Law Decay Knowledge” defines that in our memory theoretical knowledge, which hasn't become skills of practical activity or competences for a student, looses about 50 % of its volume on average in 4 weeks. In other 4 weeks 25 % of the knowledge are left, and in 2,5 months (in the period between summer examinations and the 1stof September) only 12,5 % of all received theoretical knowledge remain in student's mind! Just remember your student life. We not only guess, but even know quite well from our work experience that these disciplines of “the general development” doesn't have a practical value in daily work of a specialist.

Of course nobody doubts that the named subjects, supplementary to the major ones, on their own are of practical value. Each of them is very important and necessary, if it is a major and learned as a separate specialty or specialization in the profession on relevant faculties of HE. But students of these specialties are destined to have the same “interesting” student life and subjects “for load”, as it was in the Soviet trade (people, born in the USSR, remember it). Although I didn't see or hear that during the first years students of the humanities are to learn Study of the Strength of Materials, Theoretical basis of Electric Engineering, Descriptive Geometry or Technology of Detail and Car designing. Why not? We live now in the epoch of a technological revolution, and every day all of us use radio, TV-sets, cell phones, cars, microwaves and etc. Should every intellectual know how they are made? So to say, for general development.

By the way, students of faculties of foreign languages learn Higher Mathematics during the first year! Students, having such majors as “Organisation Management”, “Economics and Administration” and other financial economic specialties, learn Maths during two years (600 years)! Not to sound proofless, I'm going to describe the structure of didactic units in Mathematics, using the state education standard for the speciality “Organisation Management”:

Mathematical Analysis.Concept of set. Operations with sets. Concept of neighborhood of point. Functional dependence. Graphs of basic elementary functions. Limit of a numerical sequence. Function continuity in a point. Properties of numerical sets and sequences. Global properties of continuous functions. Derivative and differential. The basic theorems of differentiated functions and their applications. Convexity of a function. Definite integral. Improper integral. Dot sets in n-dimensional space. Functions of several variables, their continuity. Derivatives and differentials of functions of several variables. Classical methods of optimization. Supply and demand functions. Utility function. Indifference curves.

Linear algebra.Systems of linear equations. Elements of analytical geometry on a straight line, planes and in three-dimensional space. Determinants. Systems of vectors, a matrix rank. N-dimensional linear vector space. Linear operators and matrixes. Complex numbers and multinomials. Proper vectors of linear operators. Euclidean space. Quadratic forms. Systems of linear inequalities. Linear problems of optimisation. The basic definitions and problems of linear programming. A simplex method. The duality theory. Discrete programming. Dynamic programming. Nonlinear programming.

Probability theory and the mathematical statistics. Essenceand conditions of applicability of probability theory. The basic concepts of probability theory. Probability space. Random variables and ways of their description. Models of laws of distribution of the probabilities, the most used in social and economic appendices. The law of distribution of probabilities for functions from known random variables. Chebyshev's inequality. The law of great numbers and its consequence. A special role of normal distribution: the central limiting theorem. Markov's chains and their use in modelling of social and economic processes. Statistical estimation and check of hypotheses, statistical methods of processing of experimental data”.

Do you like it? Is it too much for you? What will experts of management (top-managers, MBA specialists, different managers of large and medium enterprises) think about it? How many times in a day, a week or even a month will a line or average manager use the received knowledge of Maths (f. e. given in the section “Linear algebra”), determined by the state education standards of HE for preparation and practical activity of economists and managers?

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Волков Олег Гаврилович
Волков Олег Гаврилович

Волкова Ирина Иосифовна
Волкова Ирина Иосифовна